The Bradhurst Urban Renewal Plan focused on encouraging mixed-use development on city-owned land and in city-owned buildings, both vacant and occupied, acquired through tax foreclosure or urban renewal. The initiative began as a response to a large stock of vacant, abandoned buildings in Bradhurst, an area of northern Harlem between West 138th and West 155th Streets, from Edgecombe Avenue and Bradhurst Avenue on the west to Adam Clayton Powell Jr. Boulevard on the east. With financial backing from the New York City Department of Housing Preservation and Development (HPD), rehabilitation of rental units began in early 1994 as part of a Memorandum of Understanding between the City of New York during the Koch administration and the Consortium for Central Harlem Development, a group of 11 community-based organizations representing religious, development, real estate, and business interests. Over time, the Consortium created a non-profit organization now known as Harlem Congregations for Community Improvement, a coalition of 90 interfaith congregations in Harlem. In Bradhurst, HPD selected private developers based on an Request for Proposals (RFP). Projects developed as a result of the Bradhurst Plan used various federal, state, and city subsidy programs.