The Dream Revisited
Discussion 24: Policing and Segregation

Discussion 24: Policing and Segregation

July 2017

The twenty-fourth discussion examines the links between policing practices such as “stop and frisk” and race and class segregation and explores potential policy responses.  


  • Policing and Segregation

    by Jeffrey A. Fagan

    Contemporary policing practices combine advanced analytics to pinpoint allocations of officers, new forms of strict management accountability, and aggressive tactical enforcement of public order crimes or violations. Aggressive policing tactics such as high rates of investigative stops of pedestrians and vehicles, arrests for misdemeanors, and summons for violations of civil ordinances are racialized and focused in poor and largely minority places. These policing tactics reinforce segregation by imposing a criminal justice tax on everyday movements and activities. In places as disparate as Ferguson and the South Bronx, the threat of police contacts or criminal sanctions, with both monetary costs and the threat of jailing, raises the transaction costs for Black and Latino persons to move freely within their neighborhoods and outside of them.   


  • The Dynamics of Policing and Segregation by Race and Class

    by Monica Bell

    Heavy handed policing practices are inextricably woven into the experience of daily life in a poor, predominantly black or Latino urban neighborhood.  But policing practices also create dynamics that push people of color out of whiter and wealthier neighborhoods, thereby reinforcing segregation. When black and Latino families have to factor the possibility of facing police bias and violence into their assessments of neighborhood livability, their residential options are constrained by race.

  • The New Policing, Crime Control, and Harm Reduction

    by Anthony A. Braga

    Although an analytical approach to understanding crime patterns and trends can better position police departments to enhance public safety and security, overly broad police surveillance and enforcement strategies contribute to mass incarceration that disproportionately affects disadvantaged neighborhoods and reinforces segregation.  Law enforcement agencies should implement strategies that include community engagement and partnerships, which could assist in building opportunity-rich, safer neighborhoods while improving public safety. 

  • High Volume Stops and Violence Prevention

    by Philip J. Cook

    There is mixed evidence regarding the effectiveness of “stop, question, and frisk” practices in deterring violence and crime, and successes with the practice can come with tradeoffs for communities: while making high-crime neighborhoods safer can benefit residents and improve investment opportunities, there are also costs imposed on the often young, minority men who are the target of police stops. Improved approaches for preventing gun violence are a critical topic for further study and debate.

Discussion 23: Race, Segregation, and Politics

March 2017

The twenty-third discussion explores the impact of persistent racial segregation on political discourse and electoral outcomes in the United States.

Discussion 22: The Stubborn Persistence of Racial Segregation

December 2016

The twenty-second discussion explores the role of residential choices in sustaining segregation within American cities.

Discussion 21: Suburban Poverty & Segregation

September 2016

The twenty-first discussion explores the increasing diversity of suburbs and increasing levels of suburban poverty and debates the challenges of supporting poor households’ economic self-sufficiency beyond the central city.

Discussion 20: Making Vouchers More Mobile

July 2016

The twentieth discussion examines the benefits of defining fair market rent by zip code, to make it easier for families to move to higher-opportunity neighborhoods, and weighs potential unintended costs.

Discussion 19: Public Housing and Deconcentrating Poverty

May 2016

The nineteenth discussion debates what we should do about high-poverty, distressed public housing developments in light of recent research from the Moving to Opportunity Program about the costs of concentrated poverty.

Discussion 18: Segregation & the Financial Crisis

February 2016

The eighteenth discussion debates the extent to which segregation exacerbated the unequal effects of the mortgage-driven financial collapse of 2007 and ways to address racial disparities in mortgage lending.

Discussion 17: Community Preferences and Fair Housing

November 2015

The seventeenth discussion debates the extent to which preferences in neighborhood residents in accessing new affordable housing promote or betray the goal of truly inclusionary communities. 

Discussion 16: A New Approach to Affirmatively Furthering Fair Housing

November 2015

The sixteenth discussion reacts to HUD’s renewed commitment to the new requirement of the Fair Housing Act to “affirmatively further fair housing.”

Discussion 15: Moving Up or Moving Out

July 2015

The fifteenth discussion explores the most effective ways to address concentrated poverty, focusing on policies that target both people and place.

Discussion 14: Housing Subsidies & Inclusive Communities

June 2015

The fourteenth discussion examines the policy issues underlying Texas vs. The Inclusive Communities Project: how government officials should balance the use of Low-Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC) allocations to create affordable homes in low-poverty neighborhoods with the use of LIHTC allocations to catalyze economic development in high-poverty neighborhoods.

Discussion 13: The Future of the Fair Housing Act

April 2015

The thirteenth discussion debates the significant of disparate impact liability under the Fair Housing Act, in light of the Supreme Court's deliberation in Texas Department of Housing and Community Affairs v. The Inclusive Communities Project.

Discussion 12: The Poor Door Debate

March 2015

The twelfth discussion weighs the controversy about "poor doors" in the context of a debate over the costs and benefits of mixed-income housing in high-cost markets.

Discussion 11: Explaining Ferguson Through Place and Race

January 2015

The eleventh discussion in The Dream Revisited explores how metropolitan development patterns shaped by race and class set the stage for the events in Ferguson, MO.

Discussion 10: Balancing Investments in People & Place

November 2014

The tenth discussion in the Dream Revisited debates the appropriate balance between investments to help low-income households move to neighborhoods that offer greater access to opportunity and investments to improve the quality of life in low-income neighborhoods.

Discussion 9: Residential Income Segregation

November 2014

The ninth discussion in The Dream Revisited analyzes segregation by income and debates the significance of the increasing isolation of the affluent.

Discussion 8: Neighborhoods, Opportunities, and the Housing Choice Voucher Program

October 2014

The eighth discussion in The Dream Revisited explores how the federal Housing Choice Voucher program can most effectively improve social, educational, and economic opportunities for voucher recipients. 

Discussion 7: Comparative Perspectives on Segregation

September 2014

The seventh discussion in The Dream Revisited explores what can be learned by looking at racial and economic segregation through a comparative lens. 

Discussion 6: Implicit Bias and Segregation

August 2014

The sixth discussion explores how implicit bias contributes to residential segregation and whether or not awareness of implicit biases can heighten a sense of moral urgency.

Discussion 5: Place-Based Affirmative Action

July 2014

The fifth discussion explores proposals to re-imagine affirmative action by focusing on neighborhood disadvantage instead of race.

Discussion 4: Neighborhood Gentrification

May 2014

The fourth discussion explores the relationship between gentrification, neighborhood integration, and public participation.

Discussion 2: Economic Segregation in Schools

March 2014

The second discussion on The Dream Revisited explores economic segregation in our schools and argues for its continued relevance today. 

Discussion 1: Why Integration?

January 2014

The frst discussion in The Dream Revisited asks what we mean by "integration" and why it may be a necessary strategy to acheive racial and economic equality.